Erscheinungsdatum: 31.12.2004, Medium: Taschenbuch, Einband: Kartoniert / Broschiert, Titel: The Biological Affinities of the Eastern Mediterranean in the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age, Titelzusatz: A Regional Dental Non-metric Approach, Autor: Parras, Zissis, Verlag: British Archaeological Reports Oxford Ltd, Sprache: Englisch, Schlagworte: SOCIAL SCIENCE // Archaeology, Rubrik: Vor- und Frühgeschichte, Seiten: 138, Informationen: Paperback, Gewicht: 551 gr, Verkäufer: averdo
This research is the first study in Taiwan trying to combine both morphological and genetic evidence to understand the biological nature of one prehistoric population. Because the dental morphological study and ancient DNA analyses seem to suggest a Northeast Asian origin for the San-Pau-Chu people, it is proposed here that approximately 2,500 BP, some prehistoric Taiwanese came from mainland East Asia. However, the WCTS people, contemporaries of SPC, show a closer relatedness with the Namu from the Hawai'i. Therefore, a multiple set of models must be considered as suggested by Matisoo-Smith (2004). Studies in larger samples sizes and wider range of archaeological sites in the future will also help to gain insights.
Forensic means 'court of law' and Odontology refers to study of teeth. Forensic odontology can be defined that branch of dentistry which deals with handling and examination of dental evidence , and after proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings in the court of law. Some of the important roles of forensic odontologists are Identifying unknown human remains through dental records , and assisting at the location of a mass disaster , eliciting the ethnicity and assisting in building up a picture of lifestyle and diet of skeletal remains at archaeological sites, determining the gender of unidentified individuals, age estimation of both the living and the deceased, recognition and analysis of bite marks found on victims of attack and in other substances such as foodstuffs and presenting evidence in court as an expert witness.
Forensic Dental Radiology usually comprises the performance, interpretation, and reportage of those radiological examinations and procedures that have to do with the courts and/or the law. The main applications of Forensic Dental Radiology are: Identifying unknown human remains through comparison of post-mortem dental evidence with dental records of the presumed deceased, Assisting at the scene of a mass disaster and in the victim's identification, Determining the sex of unidentified individuals, Age estimation of both the living and deceased, Presenting evidence in court as expert witnesses & Eliciting the ethnicity/population affinity and assisting in building up a picture of lifestyle and diet with the help of skeletal remains at forensic and archaeological sites. When all other procedures to identify the deceased person fail, forensic dental radiology gives accurate results and is easy to perform without any requirement of sophisticated equipment.
Dental anomalies of number, shape, and position are frequently analysed in the orthodontic and clinical literature but are rarely discussed in an anthropological or archaeological context. Dental anomalies and occlusal disorders are often hypothesised to be the result of a modern, urbanised lifestyle as a response to reduced masticatory stress and subsequent crowding of the dentition. This study of skulls from Classical to medieaval Macedonia and England examines the relationship between craniofacial variation and the expression of dental anomalies. Standard craniometric measurements were taken to estimate relative sizes of cranial functional complexes and determine whether or not, or to what extent, changes in the shape or size of these variables were associated with the expression of dental anomalies.Statistical analyses determined that the null hypothesis, that there is no relationship between craniometrics and dental anomalies, can be rejected. A number of dental anomalies were found to have a relationship with reduced sizes in cranial and masticatory elements, although dental crowding was not as significant a factor in masticatory complex reduction. A cause and effect relationship cannot be determined but the data presented here suggests that both heredity and environmental causes may be influential in the expression of dental anomalies.
Egyptian cuisine consists of the local culinary traditions of Egypt. Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legumes and vegetables, as Egypt's rich Nile Valley and Delta produce large quantities of high-quality crops. Egyptian cuisine's history goes back to Ancient Egypt. Archaeological excavations have found that workers on the Great Pyramids of Giza were paid in bread, beer, and onions, apparently their customary diet as peasants in the Egyptian countryside. Dental analysis of the mummified bodies of these workers seems to indicate that the bread was chewy and coarse but hearty, rather like the bread of modern Egypt, the occasional desiccated loaves found in tombs confirm this, in addition to indicating that ancient Egyptian bread was made with flour from emmer wheat. Though beer disappeared as a mainstay of Egyptian life following the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the year 654, apples remain the primary fruit for flavoring and nutrition in Egyptian food. Guavas were also a primary source of Vitamin C for the mass of the Egyptian populace, as they remain today. Many people as well refer the Guava as the Holy Fruit.
Shelley Saunders This book offers a welcome diversity of topics covering the broader subjects of teeth and the study of teeth by anthropologists. There is an impressive array of coverage here including the history of anthropological study of the teeth, morphology and structure, pathology and epidemiology, the relationship between nutrition, human behavior and the dentition, age and sex estimation from teeth, and geographic and genetic variation. Most chapter authors have provided thorough reviews of their subjects along with examples of recent analytical work and recommendations for future research. North American researchers should particularly appreciate the access to an extensive European literature cited in the individual chapter bibliographies. Physical anthropologists with even a passing interest in dental research should greet the publication of this book with pleasure since it adds to a growing list of books on how the study of teeth can tell us so much about past human populations. In addition to the archaeological applications, there is the forensic objective of dental anthropology which the editors refer to in their introduction which is dealt with in this volume. The chapters dealing with methods of sex determination, age estimation of juveniles and age estimation of adults using the teeth are exhaustive and exacting and of critical importance to both "osteoarchaeologists" and forensic anthropologists. Authors Liversidge, Herdeg and Rosing provide very clear guidelines for the use of dental formation standards in juvenile age estimation, recommendations that are so obviously necessary at this time.
Teeth and their surrounding structures are exceptional sources for addressing significant questions in numerous disciplines. In this publication, an international, multidisciplinary team of researchers addresses important issues on current aspects of dental morphology research from evolutionary, anatomical, clinical and archaeological perspectives. In combining leading-edge methods of data acquisition and analyses, such as molecular analyses and highly advanced non-destructive imaging technologies, the book demonstrates how information about various aspects of dental morphology can be used to explore the evolution of vertebrate life histories, a subject most relevant to our own species. The chapters provide profound discussions on dental evolution, dental morphology, dental tissues, dental growth and development, as well as on clinical aspects of dental morphology. As a special feature, the publication provides new information about the role of teeth as tools in reconstructing the nature and behaviour of past populations. This book will serve as an important reference for researchers of dental sciences, anatomy, evolutionary biology, paleoanthropology, paleontology, archaeology, prehistoric anthropology, comparative anatomy, genetics, embryology, and forensic medicine.
When first studying Ancient Egyptian History, the author, a dental surgeon, was struck by the fact that, with the exception of a blind harpist or an occasional adipose figure, the Ancient Egyptian, was portrayed as healthy and fit with a superb physique. However, the reality was somewhat different. It has been discovered in previous studies of the mummies and the profusion of skeletal material which are available in many collections that their lives were far from ideal and many died in pain with diseases found in modern man. Then there are the many medical papyri which give prescriptions for treatments. Some were magical and were, in reality, spells to rid the sick individual of possession by a malign spirit. However some were rational and were passed on from doctor to doctor. This research was undertaken to investigate whether changes in the diet over a period of 4000 years had a direct effect on the dentition of the ancient Egyptian. The abundance of specimens in various collections made it possible to examine complete skulls to detect dental and bone pathology which may have been influenced by disease and the environment in which they lived. Analysis of the literature of past surveys carried out in tombs has revealed much information. Tomb paintings symbolised an ideal presentation of food for the afterlife. There are scenes illustrating agriculture and irrigation of the land. In museum collections there are papyri listing rations allotted to workmen and soldiers. Of particular importance are the burial goods. There are flagons containing dried remnants of wine and beer. There are mummified joints of beef. Offerings of fruit and grain are identifiable and have been analysed. Bread offerings, found in abundance, have been investigated to differentiate organic and inorganic components. From archaeological excavations, butchered bones from a variety of animals have been identified and the burial sites give clues as to the extent of the fertile area of the Nile Valley at different periods during the millennia. This historical evidence has been examined to evaluate the extent of medical knowledge at various periods and this has been related to the pathology found.